java.util.concurrent

Class CopyOnWriteArraySet<E>

Implemented Interfaces:
Collection<E>, Iterable<E>, Serializable, Set<E>

public class CopyOnWriteArraySet<E>
extends AbstractSet<E>
implements Serializable

A Set that uses an internal CopyOnWriteArrayList for all of its operations. Thus, it shares the same basic properties:

Sample Usage. The following code sketch uses a copy-on-write set to maintain a set of Handler objects that perform some action upon state updates.

 class Handler { void handle(); ... }

 class X {
    private final CopyOnWriteArraySet<Handler> handlers
       = new CopyOnWriteArraySet<Handler>();
    public void addHandler(Handler h) { handlers.add(h); }

    private long internalState;
    private synchronized void changeState() { internalState = ...; }

    public void update() {
       changeState();
       for (Handler handler : handlers)
          handler.handle();
    }
 }
 

This class is a member of the ../../../../technotes/guides/collections/index.html"> Java Collections Framework.

Since:
1.5
See Also:
CopyOnWriteArrayList, Serialized Form

Constructor Summary

CopyOnWriteArraySet()
Creates an empty set.
CopyOnWriteArraySet(E> c)
Creates a set containing all of the elements of the specified collection.

Method Summary

T[] toArray(T[] a)
Returns an array containing all of the elements in this set; the runtime type of the returned array is that of the specified array.
boolean
add(E e)
Adds the specified element to this set if it is not already present.
boolean
addAll(E> c)
Adds all of the elements in the specified collection to this set if they're not already present.
void
clear()
Removes all of the elements from this set.
boolean
contains(Object o)
Returns true if this set contains the specified element.
boolean
containsAll(Collection c)
Returns true if this set contains all of the elements of the specified collection.
boolean
equals(Object o)
Compares the specified object with this set for equality.
boolean
isEmpty()
Returns true if this set contains no elements.
Iterator
iterator()
Returns an iterator over the elements contained in this set in the order in which these elements were added.
boolean
remove(Object o)
Removes the specified element from this set if it is present.
boolean
removeAll(Collection c)
Removes from this set all of its elements that are contained in the specified collection.
boolean
retainAll(Collection c)
Retains only the elements in this set that are contained in the specified collection.
int
size()
Returns the number of elements in this set.
Object[]
toArray()
Returns an array containing all of the elements in this set.

Methods inherited from class java.util.AbstractSet<E>

equals, hashCode, removeAll

Methods inherited from class java.util.AbstractCollection<E>

T[] toArray, add, addAll, clear, contains, containsAll, isEmpty, iterator, remove, removeAll, retainAll, size, toArray, toString

Methods inherited from class java.lang.Object

clone, equals, extends Object> getClass, finalize, hashCode, notify, notifyAll, toString, wait, wait, wait

Constructor Details

CopyOnWriteArraySet

public CopyOnWriteArraySet()
Creates an empty set.

CopyOnWriteArraySet

public CopyOnWriteArraySet(E> c)
Creates a set containing all of the elements of the specified collection.
Parameters:
c - the collection of elements to initially contain
Throws:
NullPointerException - if the specified collection is null

Method Details

T[] toArray

public  T[] toArray(T[] a)
Returns an array containing all of the elements in this set; the runtime type of the returned array is that of the specified array. If the set fits in the specified array, it is returned therein. Otherwise, a new array is allocated with the runtime type of the specified array and the size of this set.

If this set fits in the specified array with room to spare (i.e., the array has more elements than this set), the element in the array immediately following the end of the set is set to null. (This is useful in determining the length of this set only if the caller knows that this set does not contain any null elements.)

If this set makes any guarantees as to what order its elements are returned by its iterator, this method must return the elements in the same order.

Like the toArray() method, this method acts as bridge between array-based and collection-based APIs. Further, this method allows precise control over the runtime type of the output array, and may, under certain circumstances, be used to save allocation costs.

Suppose x is a set known to contain only strings. The following code can be used to dump the set into a newly allocated array of String:

     String[] y = x.toArray(new String[0]);
Note that toArray(new Object[0]) is identical in function to toArray().
Specified by:
T[] toArray in interface Set<E>
T[] toArray in interface Collection<E>
Overrides:
T[] toArray in interface AbstractCollection<E>
Parameters:
a - the array into which the elements of this set are to be stored, if it is big enough; otherwise, a new array of the same runtime type is allocated for this purpose.
Returns:
an array containing all the elements in this set
Throws:
ArrayStoreException - if the runtime type of the specified array is not a supertype of the runtime type of every element in this set
NullPointerException - if the specified array is null

add

public boolean add(E e)
Adds the specified element to this set if it is not already present. More formally, adds the specified element e to this set if the set contains no element e2 such that (e==null ? e2==null : e.equals(e2)). If this set already contains the element, the call leaves the set unchanged and returns false.
Specified by:
add in interface Set<E>
add in interface Collection<E>
Overrides:
add in interface AbstractCollection<E>
Parameters:
e - element to be added to this set
Returns:
true if this set did not already contain the specified element

addAll

public boolean addAll(E> c)
Adds all of the elements in the specified collection to this set if they're not already present. If the specified collection is also a set, the addAll operation effectively modifies this set so that its value is the union of the two sets. The behavior of this operation is undefined if the specified collection is modified while the operation is in progress.
Specified by:
addAll in interface Set<E>
addAll in interface Collection<E>
Overrides:
addAll in interface AbstractCollection<E>
Parameters:
c - collection containing elements to be added to this set
Returns:
true if this set changed as a result of the call
Throws:
NullPointerException - if the specified collection is null
See Also:
add(Object)

clear

public void clear()
Removes all of the elements from this set. The set will be empty after this call returns.
Specified by:
clear in interface Set<E>
clear in interface Collection<E>
Overrides:
clear in interface AbstractCollection<E>

contains

public boolean contains(Object o)
Returns true if this set contains the specified element. More formally, returns true if and only if this set contains an element e such that (o==null ? e==null : o.equals(e)).
Specified by:
contains in interface Set<E>
contains in interface Collection<E>
Overrides:
contains in interface AbstractCollection<E>
Parameters:
o - element whose presence in this set is to be tested
Returns:
true if this set contains the specified element

containsAll

public boolean containsAll(Collection c)
Returns true if this set contains all of the elements of the specified collection. If the specified collection is also a set, this method returns true if it is a subset of this set.
Specified by:
containsAll in interface Set<E>
containsAll in interface Collection<E>
Overrides:
containsAll in interface AbstractCollection<E>
Parameters:
c - collection to be checked for containment in this set
Returns:
true if this set contains all of the elements of the specified collection
Throws:
NullPointerException - if the specified collection is null

equals

public boolean equals(Object o)
Compares the specified object with this set for equality. Returns true if the specified object is the same object as this object, or if it is also a Set and the elements returned by an iterator over the specified set are the same as the elements returned by an iterator over this set. More formally, the two iterators are considered to return the same elements if they return the same number of elements and for every element e1 returned by the iterator over the specified set, there is an element e2 returned by the iterator over this set such that (e1==null ? e2==null : e1.equals(e2)).
Specified by:
equals in interface Set<E>
equals in interface Collection<E>
Overrides:
equals in interface AbstractSet<E>
Parameters:
o - object to be compared for equality with this set
Returns:
true if the specified object is equal to this set

isEmpty

public boolean isEmpty()
Returns true if this set contains no elements.
Specified by:
isEmpty in interface Set<E>
isEmpty in interface Collection<E>
Overrides:
isEmpty in interface AbstractCollection<E>
Returns:
true if this set contains no elements

iterator

public Iterator iterator()
Returns an iterator over the elements contained in this set in the order in which these elements were added.

The returned iterator provides a snapshot of the state of the set when the iterator was constructed. No synchronization is needed while traversing the iterator. The iterator does NOT support the remove method.

Specified by:
iterator in interface Set<E>
iterator in interface Collection<E>
iterator in interface Iterable<E>
Overrides:
iterator in interface AbstractCollection<E>
Returns:
an iterator over the elements in this set

remove

public boolean remove(Object o)
Removes the specified element from this set if it is present. More formally, removes an element e such that (o==null ? e==null : o.equals(e)), if this set contains such an element. Returns true if this set contained the element (or equivalently, if this set changed as a result of the call). (This set will not contain the element once the call returns.)
Specified by:
remove in interface Set<E>
remove in interface Collection<E>
Overrides:
remove in interface AbstractCollection<E>
Parameters:
o - object to be removed from this set, if present
Returns:
true if this set contained the specified element

removeAll

public boolean removeAll(Collection c)
Removes from this set all of its elements that are contained in the specified collection. If the specified collection is also a set, this operation effectively modifies this set so that its value is the asymmetric set difference of the two sets.
Specified by:
removeAll in interface Set<E>
removeAll in interface Collection<E>
Overrides:
removeAll in interface AbstractSet<E>
Parameters:
c - collection containing elements to be removed from this set
Returns:
true if this set changed as a result of the call
Throws:
ClassCastException - if the class of an element of this set is incompatible with the specified collection (optional)
NullPointerException - if this set contains a null element and the specified collection does not permit null elements (optional), or if the specified collection is null

retainAll

public boolean retainAll(Collection c)
Retains only the elements in this set that are contained in the specified collection. In other words, removes from this set all of its elements that are not contained in the specified collection. If the specified collection is also a set, this operation effectively modifies this set so that its value is the intersection of the two sets.
Specified by:
retainAll in interface Set<E>
retainAll in interface Collection<E>
Overrides:
retainAll in interface AbstractCollection<E>
Parameters:
c - collection containing elements to be retained in this set
Returns:
true if this set changed as a result of the call
Throws:
ClassCastException - if the class of an element of this set is incompatible with the specified collection (optional)
NullPointerException - if this set contains a null element and the specified collection does not permit null elements (optional), or if the specified collection is null

size

public int size()
Returns the number of elements in this set.
Specified by:
size in interface Set<E>
size in interface Collection<E>
Overrides:
size in interface AbstractCollection<E>
Returns:
the number of elements in this set

toArray

public Object[] toArray()
Returns an array containing all of the elements in this set. If this set makes any guarantees as to what order its elements are returned by its iterator, this method must return the elements in the same order.

The returned array will be "safe" in that no references to it are maintained by this set. (In other words, this method must allocate a new array even if this set is backed by an array). The caller is thus free to modify the returned array.

This method acts as bridge between array-based and collection-based APIs.

Specified by:
toArray in interface Set<E>
toArray in interface Collection<E>
Overrides:
toArray in interface AbstractCollection<E>
Returns:
an array containing all the elements in this set